The transistor history tells of a development that took many years. It built on many years of theoretical research into semiconductors.First semiconductor diodes arrived and these were able to deliver improved performance over thermionic predecessors in some areas.However the transistor history is a testament to the perseverance of the researchers who were finally rewarded with the first semiconductor amplifying device.
VXI Technology Includes:What is VXI testChassis / rackVXIbus connectors & connectionsModules & cardsMXIVXI and its VXIbus is a powerful test instrumentation technology based around a rack system based on the 19 inch rack based VME bus: test instruments were constructed on single cards or modules that could slot into the VXIbus.
Ethernet IEEE 802.3 Includes:Ethernet introductionStandardsEthernet data frame structure100Mbps Fast EthernetGigabit Ethernet, 1GE10 Gigabit Ethernet, 10GEEthernet cablesHow to buy Ethernet cablesRouters, hubs, switches - the differencesPower over Ethernet, PoECarrier EthernetBuying Ethernet cable is not always as easy as it might seem.
PCB Manufacture Includes:PCB manufacture basicsHow to choose the right PCB manufacturerThe PCB manufacturing process is very important for anyone involved in the electronics industry. Printed circuit boards, PCBs, are very widely used as the basis for electronic circuits. Printed circuit boards are used to provide the mechanical basis on which the circuit can be built.
There is a host of electronic circuit building blocks that can be used. The electronic tutorials in this section provide electronic circuit building blocks along with design information, formulas, practical hints and tips where applicable and useful guides on the electronic circuits.Transistor circuitsDespite the fact that integrated ciruits are widely used today, electronic circuits using discrete transistors can still provide excellent performance.
Voice over IP, VoIP Includes:VoIP basicsVoIP phonesHow to choose best VoIP service providerUnderstanding VoIP and how VoIP works can enable users of telephone services to make some cost savings as well as being able to take advantage of many improvements in facilities and flexibility that it provides.
QRP Operating Includes:QRP basicsQRP equipmentQRP operatingQRP or low power operation has a large and growing band of radio hams who enjoy this aspect of amateur radio. The term comes from the Q codes that were often for Morse, CW and other radio transmissions where QRP means shall I reduce power.Even many radio amateurs whose licenses enable them to use the full legal power con often prefer QRP operation as it gives them a great sense of satisfaction and provides a whole new world of challenges in terms of amateur radio operating as well as building the equipment.
SCART includes:SCART introductionThe SCART connection system is an older connection standard used mainly within Europe to connect different audio and video systems together. It appears on televisions, video recorders, DVD players and many other items enabling the video to be streamed from one unit to another.
The mobile phone has been in existence for many years: here we detail the cell phone history since its inception.History of Mobile Phones Includes:Cellphone historyCell phone systems tableGSM historyUMTS history5G history & timelineMobile phone technology has its roots embedded in ordinary mobile radio technology.
VHF FM Broadcasting Tutorial Includes:RDS basicsRDS operationPTY codesRDS acronymsRDS or Radio Data System is standard on most car radios and hi-fi tuners today. RDS is used on VHF FM radio broadcast transmissions and provides a number of facilities that are of great use to all radio listeners, but particularly to those radio listeners in cars.
Charles Babbage Biography & History Includes:Babbage biographyInventions Facts & quotesCharles Babbage was an English scientist: a mathematician, philosopher, inventor and mechanical engineer.Out of all his work, Babbage is best remembered for originating the concept of a programmable computer.
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Dynamic RAM, or DRAM is a form of random access memory, RAM which is used in many processor systems to provide the working memory.DRAM is widely used in digital electronics where low-cost and high-capacity memory is required.Dynamic RAM, DRAM is used where very high levels of memory density are needed, although against this it is quite power hungry so this needs to be considered if it is to be used.
Semiconductors Includes:What is a semiconductorSemiconductor materialsHoles & electronsSemiconductors and semiconductor technology forms the basis of most of the electronics industry these days. Transistors, diodes, integrated circuits and many more devices all have semiconductor technology in common.
Soldering Tutorial Includes:Soldering basicsManual soldering: how to solderSoldering ironsTools for solderingSolder - what it is and how to use itDe-soldering - the secrets of how to do it properlySolder jointsPCB solder resistSee also:SMT soldering techniques for PCB assemblyWhile being able to make good solder joints is very important, another skill that can be equally important is knowing how to de-solder well.
FPGA Programming Tutorial Includes:How to program FPGAsLabVIEW FPGAFPGA, Field Programmable Gate Array technology is very useful within the industry.The FPGA enables the functionality of the chip to be programmed in, enabling this to be updated at any point required. This can be changed to accommodate updates or to even change the functionality a board or system when it is required to perform different functions.
Heatsinks are used in many pieces of electronics equipment to ensure that heat can be removed from pieces of equipment or particular components within them. For example with microprocessors running very hot these days, they normally have heatsinks clamped or attached to them, and in addition to this fans are also included in PCs to ensure that the components stay cool and operate within their operating temperature ranges.
ASIC Development Includes:ASIC design basicsASIC, Application Specific Integrated Circuit can be very costly to produce. As a result, it is necessary to ensure that the ASIC design and development process is undertaken in a logical and controlled manner.Each stage of the ASIC design and development process should be carefully monitored and precautions taken to ensure that the final ASIC design meets the requirement and operates satisfactorily in real world applications.
Wireless Weather Station Includes:Buting best wireless weather stationIt can be very useful to have a small electronic weather station in the house and an external wireless connected sensor outside.These wireless weather stations are widely available and they also do not cost excessive amounts.What is a wireless weather stationA wireless weather station consists of an internal monitor and display unit, and an external sensor unit.
Logic IC families & Technologies Includes:IC logic families & technolgies summary chartNumbering schemes7400 Series TTLThere is a host of different types of logic ranging from the very early technologies including RTL and DTL right through the basic 7400 series and 4000 CMOS types right through to the latest low voltage high speed technologies of today.